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拉凯什·库拉纳(Rakesh Khurana)——哈佛商学院教授、世界顶级管理思想大师 目录
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拉凯什·库拉纳简介编辑本段回目录

  拉凯什·库拉纳(Rakesh Khurana)——哈佛商学院组织行为学教授、世界顶级管理思想大师。获得哈佛大学的博士学位。 
主要著作包括: 
《寻找企业拯救者:无理性地追求有魅力的首席执行官》(Searching for a Corporate Saviour: The Irrational Quest for Charismatic CEOs),2002 
《从高目标到高技能:美国商学院的社会变迁——将管理学作为职业是无法履行的承诺》("From Higher Aims to Hired Hands: The Social Transformation of American Business Schools and the Unfulfilled Promise of Management as a Profession,"普林斯顿大学出版社, 2007) 
《哈佛商业评论之终极领导力》(HBR ON LEADERSHIP AT THE TOP) 

Rakesh Khurana介绍编辑本段回目录

  Rakesh Khurana is the Marvin Bower Professor of Leadership Development at the Harvard Business School. He teaches a doctoral seminar on Management and Markets and The Board of Directors and Corporate Governance in the MBA program. 
  Professor Khurana received his B.S. from Cornell University in Ithaca, New York and his A.M. (Sociology) and Ph.D. in Organization Behavior from Harvard University. Prior to attending graduate school, he worked as a founding member of Cambridge Technology Partners in Sales and Marketing. 
  Professor Khurana's research uses a sociological perspective to focus on the processes by which elites and leaders are selected and developed. He has written extensively about the CEO labor market with a particular interest on: the factors that lead to vacancies in the CEO position; the factors that affect the choice of successor; the role of market intermediaries such as executive search firms in CEO search; and the consequences of CEO succession and selection decisions for subsequent firm performance and strategic choices. He has published articles on Corp. Governance in the Harvard Business and Sloan Management Review. His book on the CEO labor market, Searching for a Corporate Savior: The Irrational Quest for Charismatic CEOs (Princeton University Press) was published in October, 2002. The book is an analysis of the labor market for CEOs. 
  In the book Khurana explains the basic mechanics of the market, how it differs from other labor markets, how it has changed in the past twenty years, and whether it is successful in placing the best candidates in the available jobs. He focuses on the growing tendency of boards of directors to ignore candidates inside their firms and to hire CEOs from outside. He seeks to show that this trend has emerged not because of the intrinsic merits of the “external market,” but because of the rise of investor capitalism and despite evidence that reliance on this market for CEO succession and executive compensation has serious problems that may threaten the viability of firms and the legitimacy of market capitalism. 
  Khurana's current research grows out of the same interests in the social context of business leadership and the allocation of leadership positions that motivated his research on the CEO labor market. His most recent book, From Higher Aims to Hired Hands: The Social Transformation of American Business Schools and the Unfulfilled Promise of Management as a Profession (2007: Princeton University Press), chronicles the evolution of management as a profession, with particular focus on the institutional development of the MBA. This research is rooted in the question of how certain occupations within business (not just executive management but also consulting, private equity, and investment banking) have come to require the MBA credential as a prerequisite for entry. The significance of this issue lies in its direct bearing on the question of how professional management has claimed and received legitimation for its role as the steward of a very substantial proportion of society’s material wealth and resources—a role that has itself been subject to changing interpretations over the decades since the phenomenon of professional management first appeared on the American scene. 
  Although there is a rich sociological literature on professions, it is focused, for the most part, on licensed professions such as medicine and law. He expects the results of this research on professions to have implications for our understanding of how, exactly, professional managers do, can, or should “contribute to the well-being of society”. Guiding questions in this research stream include: Where did our current shareholder-centered, agency-based view of the role of professional management come from—particularly in light of the very different one that underlay the founding of the first professional business schools and the granting to them of a place within the university? How does our current view of the role of the professional manager compare with the way that professional responsibility has traditionally been conceived in the other professions? In view of the way that professional roles have recently been evolving in professions such as law or medicine, do market forces inevitably undermine professional autonomy and standards? What would be the potential benefits and drawbacks of management becoming more like the other professions in its structure and culture than it has been during its history to date? Khurana's work argues that without a re-commitment to the professionalization project, business schools risk devolving into narrow vocation schools and serving largely as a credentialing system, ultimately weakening the legitimacy of MBA programs and contributing to a business culture that garners low trust and low legitimacy in society. 
  From Higher Aims to Hired Hands received the American Sociological Association's Max Weber Book Award in 2008 for most outstanding contribution to scholarship in the past two years. In 2007, the book was also the Winner of the 2007 Best Professional/Scholarly Publishing Book in Business, Finance and Management, Association of American Publishers. 
  Khurana's work on the deficiencies of the CEO labor market and his research on business education is regularly featured by the general media such as: Business Week, Fortune, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, Newsweek, The Washington Post, CNBC, The Economist, Globe and Mail, The New Yorker, Chief Executive and Corporate Board Member magazine. He has also published opinion-editorials in some of these outlets. He has consulted to corporations and executive search firms to help improve their CEO succession, governance, and executive development practices. He has been recognized by the London Times as one of 'The Thinkers 50', a list of the fifty most influential management thinkers in the world. 

著作与课程Publications & Course Materials编辑本段回目录

Books
  Nohria, Nitin, and Rakesh Khurana, eds. Handbook of Leadership and Theory Practice. Harvard Business Publishing, forthcoming. 

  Khurana, Rakesh. From Higher Aims to Hired Hands: The Social Transformation of American Business Schools and the Unfulfilled Promise of Management as a Profession. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007. (Winner of the 2007 Best Professional/Scholarly Publishing Book in Business, Finance and Management from the Association of American Publishers. Winner of the 2008 Max Weber Award for Best Book from the American Sociological Association Section on Organization, Occupations and Work .) Abstract 

  Is management a profession? Should it be? Can it be? This major work of social and intellectual history reveals how such questions have driven business education and shaped American management and society for more than a century. The book is also a call for reform. Rakesh Khurana shows that university-based business schools were founded to train a professional class of managers in the mold of doctors and lawyers but have effectively retreated from that goal, leaving a gaping moral hole at the center of business education and perhaps in management itself. 
  Khurana begins in the late nineteenth century, when members of an emerging managerial elite, seeking social status to match the wealth and power they had accrued, began working with major universities to establish graduate business education programs paralleling those for medicine and law. Constituting business as a profession, however, required codifying the knowledge relevant for practitioners and developing enforceable standards of conduct. Khurana, drawing on a rich set of archival material from business schools, foundations, and academic associations, traces how business educators confronted these challenges with varying strategies during the Progressive era and the Depression, the postwar boom years, and recent decades of freewheeling capitalism. 

  Today, Khurana argues, business schools have largely capitulated in the battle for professionalism and have become merely purveyors of a product, the MBA, with students treated as consumers. Professional and moral ideals that once animated and inspired business schools have been conquered by a perspective that managers are merely agents of shareholders, beholden only to the cause of share profits. According to Khurana, we should not thus be surprised at the rise of corporate malfeasance. The time has come, he concludes, to rejuvenate intellectually and morally the training of our future business leaders. 

  Khurana, Rakesh. Searching for a Corporate Savior: The Irrational Quest for Charismatic CEOs. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2002. 
reas of Interest
Primary Interests 
boards of directors 
corporate governance 
leadership 
market institutions 
organizational behavior 
Additional Topics 
agency theory 
compensation 
corporate accountability 
corporate social responsibility 
economic institutions 
education 
human resource management 
incentives 
networks 
power and influence 
Industries 
executive search 
Geographical Areas 
Eastern Europe 
Europe 
France 
Germany 
North America 
Turkey 
United States 
Western Europe 

商学院:何日重归使命?编辑本段回目录

  商学院的教授们都是批评别人工作的大师。他们对微软公司(Microsoft Corp.)的策略说三道四;他们大肆贬低安然(Enron)时代的公司职业道德标准。他们都忙着对外面的世界指手画脚,但审视一下他们自己所在的学校似乎是件不可思议的事情。

  现在,哈佛商学院(Harvard Business School)副教授拉凯什•库拉纳(Rakesh Khurana)就准备打破这个禁忌。

  下个月,库拉纳将出版一本评点商学院过去50年发展历程的书──From Higher Aims to Hired Hands。书中认为,包括哈佛商学院在内的知名商学院都已经偏离了培养远见卓识型商界领袖的原有使命。

  库拉纳认为,MBA培训已经降格为帮助学生获得金融和咨询业高薪职位的竞赛,而不关心毕业生如何在社会上发挥更全面的作用。他说,管理工作的基本出发点已经不复存在。高瞻远瞩的思考已让位于越来越短视的追求股东价值最大化的行为。

  广告他宣称,在这种局面下,获得一个更高的商科学位不再意味着就能迈进高薪职位(如法律界或制药业)的大门。这只是一张让毕业生能够占据竞争公司经理职位的有利位置、并在这个过程中为自己谋得较高收入的证书。

  如果库拉纳希望拷问商学院的校长、校友和在读的学生,这可能是他能选择的最佳方式。多年来,随着就业市场的变化,各商学院也对不断重新定义其使命引以为荣。如果有人向他们表示,应对做出的这许多调整感到羞愧而不是骄傲,这将深深刺痛他们,更不用说此人还是来自学校内部了。

  比如,密歇根大学罗斯商学院曾有大量毕业生选择在汽车业就职。如今,随着汽车公司陷入成本控制的泥潭难以自拔,进入汽车业的毕业生比例降到只有1.5%。这并未令校长罗伯特•多兰(Robert Dolan)感到担忧;现在,该学院有66%的毕业生进入服务业,其中进入咨询和金融服务业的最多。

  在宾夕法尼亚大学沃顿商学院,800名一年级学生中约有一半参加了有关进入对冲基金或私人资本运营公司工作的职业恳谈会。4年前,学校还没有此类正式的会议。但沃顿商学院MBA职业管理主任米歇尔•安东尼奥(Michelle Antonio)说,学生对这些行业的兴趣越来越大,因此该院也在帮助学生为进入此类领域工作做好准备。

 商学院报告

  · 2007年商学院排行榜

  · 最受雇主青睐的商学院

  · MBA人才争夺战如果商学院仅仅是想帮助学生找到最快的致富途径,他们只需向学生指明各种最新的投资领域就可以了。哈佛商学院去年进行的一项调查发现,私人资本运营公司给毕业生开出的薪酬最高:年薪中值为125,000美元,奖金超过90,000美元。

  这还只是个开始。《福布斯》(Forbes)杂志列出的今年美国前400名富人的最新名单中有45张新面孔,其中有20人来自对冲基金或私人资本运营业。相比之下,高科技和传统制造业分别只有两人入选。(时代不同了,生产杀虫剂和咖啡伴侣的新一代实业家们很难像钢铁大王安德鲁•卡耐基(Andrew Carnegie)当年那样暴富了)。

  至少有一些商学院对应与私人资本运营公司和对冲基金保持何种程度的密切关联感到没有把握。达特茅斯大学(Dartmouth College)塔克商学院职业发展副主任丽贝卡•乔弗瑞(Rebecca Joffrey)说,这些企业目前的吸引力可能再次提醒人们,华尔街可能会怎样看好一轮经济周期的顶部。


  她一直鼓励传统工业企业到塔克商学院来招人,尽管目前金融公司的吸引力异常强大。她说,即使资本市场陷入低谷,嘉吉公司(Cargill)和百事公司(PepsiCo.)这样的企业仍会聘用新人,而对冲基金和私人资本运营公司则可能大大减少招聘人数。

  对库拉纳来说,他希望看到商学院大刀阔斧地进行改革。他非常欣赏法学院和医学院对毕业生进行认证并要求终生继续教育的方式。他建议,商学院或许也可以采取类似的做法。

  库拉纳还希望看到公司经理能重新获得过去的一些权限,在考虑每周的股价表现之外还能在其他领域建立更持久的价值。在这点上,他可能是太怀旧了。大权在握的老板们并不总能做出明智的决策。

  不过库拉纳也发现了一个明显的不均衡现象。在目前的环境下,许多才华横溢的年轻MBA学生并不想成为首席执行长,一个原因是来自各方面的压力让首席执行长们难以按照自己的日程行事。这些学生宁愿成为拿着高薪推动变革的咨询师、甚至是有权聘用和解雇首席执行长的投资人。

  要想让一流的商学院恢复他们的传统角色,成为培训下一代企业领导人的基地,实施上面提到的大力度变革应该是必不可少的。

参考文献编辑本段回目录

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rakesh_Khurana

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