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美国论坛公司(Tribune Company)——美国第二大报业集团

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美国论坛公司简介编辑本段回目录


The Tribune Company is a large United States multimedia corporation based in Chicago, Illinois. foundation 1847. It is the nation's second-largest newspaper publisher, responsible for the Chicago Tribune, Los Angeles Times, Newsday, Hartford Courant, Orlando Sentinel, South Florida Sun-Sentinel and the The Morning Call, among others. Through other subsidiaries, the Tribune Company also owns Tribune Broadcasting, Tribune Entertainment, Tribune Media Services, and the Chicago Cubs baseball team.

In 2008, Tribune is struggling under a $13 billion debt load, much of it incurred in taking the company private in 2007, and from plummeting advertising income at its newspapers. Actions being contemplated or already initiated to meet the debt obligations include widespread newspaper staff layoffs, selling Newsday, selling the Chicago Cubs and their stadium (Wrigley Field) and, perhaps most starkly, selling the iconic Chicago Tribune Tower and Los Angeles Times Building.[1] The company recently hired advisers to avoid a possible bankruptcy.On December 8, 2008 the Tribune Company filed for Chapter 11 Bankruptcy.]

美国传媒业萧条,“大牌”媒体过寒冬。美国报业巨擘论坛公司(Tribune Co.)周一(8日)下午宣布正式申请破产保护,表示不堪背负高达近130亿美元的债务。而纽约时报集团目前严重资不抵债,拥有《纽约时报》的纽约时报公司计划将总部大楼作抵押,借贷2.25亿美元。

美国

《新闻周刊》编辑本段回目录

认为,论坛公司的破产就是傻钱投资的活案例。在投资人山姆·泽尔接手论坛公司的12个月过后,随着次贷泡沫的破碎,论坛报集团剩下的只是80亿美元负资产。

Tribune History编辑本段回目录


Various Tribune media reaches more than 80 percent of U.S. households - through newspaper publishing, television and radio broadcasting and the Internet. Operations are concentrated in the nation’s major markets, including the top three, New York, Los Angeles and Chicago.

The company was founded in 1847. That year, on June 10, the Chicago Tribune published its first edition in a one-room plant located at LaSalle and Lake Streets. The original press run consisted of 400 copies printed on a hand press.

In 1869, the Tribune erected its first building, a four-story structure at Dearborn and Madison Streets. In October 1871, when the Great Chicago Fire raged through the city, the wooden building was destroyed, as was most of the city. The Tribune reappeared two days later with an editorial declaring "Chicago Shall Rise Again." The newspaper’s editor and part-owner, Joseph Medill, was elected mayor and led the city’s reconstruction. A native Ohioan who first acquired an interest in the Tribune in 1855, Medill gained full control of the newspaper in 1874 and guided it until his death in 1899.

Medill’s two grandsons, Robert R. McCormick and Joseph Medill Patterson, assumed leadership of the company in 1911. That same year, the Chicago Tribune’s first newsprint mill opened in Thorold, Ontario. The mill marked the beginnings of the Canadian newsprint producer later known as QUNO, in which Tribune held an investment interest until 1995.

Chicago’s WGN Radio (720 AM) went on the air in 1924, its call letters reflecting the Chicago Tribune’s slogan, "World’s Greatest Newspaper." It was first to broadcast the World Series, the Indianapolis 500 and the Kentucky Derby, and broke new ground by introducing microphones in the courtroom during the famous 1925 Scopes Monkey Trial in Tennessee. Today, Tribune’s original broadcast property is a 50,000-watt Midwest station.

Also in 1925, the company completed a new headquarters and one of Chicago’s first "skyscrapers." Tribune Tower’s neo-Gothic design was chosen from 263 entries in a $100,000 international competition. The 36-story building is a Chicago landmark and perhaps best known for the many historic stones and artifacts embedded in its limestone exterior.

The Chicago Tribune-New York News Syndicate was formed in 1918. Its successor, Tribune Media Services, offers hundreds of different content products, including classic or modern comic strips, op-ed columns and other features. In addition, the TMS Entertainment Products Group collects and distributes television programming data and movie listings.

Tribune entered the infant television industry in 1948, when it established WGN-TV in Chicago, followed by WPIX-TV in New York. These stations, now affiliates of The CW Television Network, became the foundation for Tribune Television, today one of the country’s largest independent TV groups.

In the 1960s, the company entered the fast-growing Florida market, acquiring the Fort Lauderdale-based Sun-Sentinel in 1963 and the Orlando Sentinel in 1965. A third television station, Denver’s KWGN-TV, was purchased in 1966.

The formation of Tribune Broadcasting Company in 1981 signaled the growing importance of television in the company’s business mix. Another key event in 1981 was Tribune’s acquisition of the Chicago Cubs baseball team from the Wrigley family for $20.5 million. WGN Radio and WGN-TV had been broadcasting Cubs games since those stations first went on the air. Since 1978, when WGN-TV began calling itself a "superstation," the Cubs have been aired to a national audience via cable. Today, WGN America (formerly Superstation WGN) reaches about 60 million U.S. homes outside Chicago through cable and direct broadcast satellite.

Tribune Entertainment Company was created in 1982 and today develops, produces and distributes television programming for Tribune stations and non-Tribune stations nationwide. Based in Hollywood, the business distributes and co-produces syndicated weekly one-hour action dramas, including "Gene Roddenberry’s Andromeda." Tribune Entertainment’s beginnings trace back to 1975 when it began syndicating "U.S. Farm Report."

In 1983, after 136 years of private ownership, Tribune became a public company with an initial offering of 7.7 million shares valued at $206 million. The opening price per share was $26.75. At the time, it was one of the largest IPOs ever made. The company’s New York Stock Exchange ticker symbol was TRB before going private.

Several acquisitions served to accelerate Tribune’s growth in the mid-1980s. Most significant was the 1985 purchase of KTLA-TV in Los Angeles for $510 million. This made Tribune the only non-network company to own VHF stations in the country’s top three markets. Television stations in Atlanta and New Orleans were acquired shortly before KTLA, and the Daily Press (Newport News, Virginia) joined Tribune’s newspaper group in 1986.

Tribune grew dramatically during the 1990s, spurred by a loosening of federal regulations restricting television and radio ownership. This resulted in rapid consolidation within the broadcasting industry and Tribune played the role of consolidator by expanding its holdings in the top 40 markets. Through a series of acquisitions and investments, the company emerged as one of the largest owners and operators of television stations in the nation. Key additions included Philadelphia’s WPHL-TV in 1991 and Boston’s WLVI-TV in 1994.

Tribune acquired an equity interest in The WB Television Network upon its launch in 1995.

CLTV, the Chicago area’s first and only 24-hour all-news cable channel, took to the air in 1993, as the sister station of the Chicago Tribune. Today, Tribune newspapers partner with the news operations of Tribune television stations in their markets or with non-Tribune broadcasters, including local radio stations.

Tribune’s television stations and newspapers are complemented by several news and information websites. The sites are operated by Tribune Interactive, established in 1999. The group manages all aspects of the company’s TV and newspaper sites, plus special-interest sites like ChicagoSports.com and many sites featuring local dining and entertainment information. Affiliated national-brand classified advertising sites, in which Tribune owns an equity interest, include CareerBuilder, cars.com and apartments.com.

Tribune’s total operating revenues had grown to $2.2 billion in 1995.

Television stations in Houston and San Diego were acquired in 1996, followed in 1997 by Tribune’s largest television acquisition ever -- Renaissance Communications for $1.1 billion. Six stations joined the Tribune group, including KDAF-TV in Dallas and WBZL-TV in Miami.

A merger with The Times Mirror Company, completed in June 2000, effectively doubled the size of Tribune by adding more newspapers to the company's holdings. The $8.3 billion transaction was the largest acquisition in newspaper industry history.

The Times Mirror merger added seven daily newspapers to the Tribune group, including the Los Angeles Times, Newsday, The Baltimore Sun and the Hartford Courant. Tribune was now the only media company with newspapers and television stations in the top three markets. Among other advantages from the merger, including various economies of scale, Tribune newspapers could now effectively compete for national advertising. Tribune Media Net, the national advertising sales organization of Tribune Publishing, was established in 2000 to take advantage of the company’s expanded scale and scope. By 2002, revenues had grown to $5 billion.

Tribune also launched daily newspapers targeting urban commuters, including its RedEye edition in 2002, followed by an investment in amNewYork one year later. In 2006, Tribune acquired the minority equity interest in amNewYork and now holds full ownership in the newspaper, which is printed by Newsday.

On April 2, 2007, Chicago-based investor Sam Zell announced plans to buy out the media company for $34.00 a share, totalling $8.2 billion. Zell's intentions were to turn the company private. The deal was approved by 97% of the Company's shareholders on August 21, 2007.[7] Privatization of the Tribune Company occurred on December 20, 2007 with termination of trading in Tribune stock at the close of the market.[8]

On December 21, 2007, Tribune and Local TV announced plans to collaborate in the formation of an as yet unnamed "broadcast management company".[9]

On January 31, 2008, Tribune Company announced it will purchase real estate currently leased from TMCT, LLC, which includes properties used by the Los Angeles Times, Newsday, Baltimore Sun and Hartford Courant. The company received an option to purchase the real estate for $175 million through the 2006 restructuring of TMCT, LLC.

In addition, Tribune announced the sale of Tribune Studios and related real estate in Los Angeles to Hudson Capital, LLC, for $125 million. The parties also agreed to a five-year lease allowing KTLA-TV to continue operating at the location through 2012.[10]

On February 4, 2008, Tribune Company today named broadcast veteran Ed Wilson as president of Tribune Broadcasting, overseeing the company’s 23 television stations, Superstation WGN, Tribune Entertainment, and WGN Radio. His appointment is effective February 11.[11]

On April 28,2008, Tribune completed an acquisition of real estate from TMCT Partnership.[12]

On July 29, 2008, Cablevision completed a purchase of Newsday from Tribune.[13]

On September 8, 2008, United Airlines lost (and later the same day almost regained) USD $1 billion in market value when an archived 2002 Chicago Tribune article appeared in the "most viewed" category on the website of the Sun-Sentinel. Google News index's next pass found the link as new news. Income Security Advisors found the Google result to be new news, which was passed along to Bloomberg News where it became a headline. (Tribune Company who owns both papers noted that one click on a story in non-peak hours could flag an article as "most viewed".)[14]

On September 22, 2008; Tribune Company, along with Cumulus Media, Entercom Communications, Bonneville International, Connoisseur Communications, former radio industry executive Bobby Lawrence and former CBS Radio CEO Joel Hollander are making first round bids on 50 CBS Radio Stations. (see "radio station" section for more info)

On December 8, 2008, faced with high debts related to the company going private, Tribune filed for bankruptcy.[15]

Television stations编辑本段回目录


Media market  City of license/Market  Station  Channel
Analog television / Digital terrestrial television  Owned Since  Affiliation 
1.  New York City  WPIX **  11 / 33  1948  The CW Television Network 
2.  Los Angeles  KTLA  5 / 31  1985  CW 
3.  Chicago  WGN-TV **  9 / 19  1948  CW 
4.  Philadelphia  WPHL-TV  17 / 54  1992  MyNetworkTV 
5.  Dallas - Fort Worth  KDAF  33 / 32  1997  CW 
9.  Washington, D.C.  WDCW  50 / 51  1999  CW 
10.  Houston  KIAH (TV)  39 / 38  1995  CW 
14.  Tacoma, Washington - Seattle, Washington  KCPQ  13 / 18  1999  Fox Broadcasting Company 
KMYQ  22 / 25  1998  MyNetworkTV 
16.  Miami - Fort Lauderdale, Florida  WSFL-TV  39 / 19  1997  CW 
18.  Denver  KWGN-TV  2 / 34  1966  CW 
20.  Sacramento, California - Stockton, California - Modesto, California  KTXL  40 / 55  1997  Fox 
21.  St. Louis, Missouri  KPLR-TV  11 / 26  2003  CW 
23.  Salem, Oregon - Portland, Oregon  KRCW-TV  32 / 33  2003  CW 
26.  Indianapolis  WXIN (TV)  59 / 45  1997  Fox 
Bloomington, Indiana  WTTV  4 / 48  2002  CW 
Kokomo, Indiana  WTTK
(satellite of WTTV)  29 / 54  2002  CW 
27.  San Diego  KSWB-TV [16]  69 / 19  1996  Fox 
29.  Hartford, Connecticut - New Haven, Connecticut  WTIC-TV  61 / 31  1997  Fox 
Waterbury, Connecticut  WTXX  20 / 12  2001  CW 
39.  Grand Rapids, Michigan - Battle Creek, Michigan -
Kalamazoo, Michigan  WXMI  17 / 19  1998  Fox 
41.  York, Pennsylvania - Harrisburg, Pennsylvania -
Lancaster, Pennsylvania - Lebanon, Pennsylvania  WPMT  43 / 47  1997  Fox 
53.  New Orleans  WGNO  26 / 15  1983  American Broadcasting Company 
WNOL-TV  38 / 40  1999  CW 

WGNO is the only Big Three affiliate (ABC, CBS, NBC) station in Tribune's portfolio.

Radio station编辑本段回目录


AM Station 
Media market#  Market  Station  Owned Since  Current Format 
3.  Chicago  WGN (AM)-720  1924  Talk radio 

WGN-AM is the only radio station in Tribune's portfolio, however as of September 22, 2008; Tribune is among the seven candidates/companies to make first-round bids of the 50 radio stations in 12 small and mid-size markets being sold by CBS Radio.[17] If picked as a buyer and approved by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), it will be the biggest radio station purchase in company history since its purchase of Renaissance Communications in 1997.

Tribune Papers编辑本段回目录


Market  Paper 
New York  AM New York 
Los Angeles  Los Angeles Times 
Chicago  Chicago Tribune 
Chicago  Chicago RedEye 
Baltimore, Maryland  Baltimore Sun 
Fort Lauderdale, Florida  South Florida Sun-Sentinel 
Fort Lauderdale, Florida  El Sentinel del Sur de la Florida 
Orlando, Florida  Orlando Sentinel 
Orlando, Florida  El Sentinel (Orlando) 
Hartford, Connecticut  Hartford Courant 
Allentown, Pennsylvania  The Morning Call 
Newport News, Virginia  Daily Press (Virginia) 
Chicago and Los Angeles  Hoy (newspaper) 

Other properties编辑本段回目录


Note: This list is partial

Website  Affiliates 
ForSalebyowner.com  Wholly Owned 
CareerBuilder & Topix.net  McClatchy and Gannett 

References编辑本段回目录


 Newspapers, reeling from slumping ads, slash jobs |last=Sutel |first=Seth |date=2008-06-29| accessdate=2008-06-29|work= |publisher=Associated Press 
Tribune Hires Advisers to Try Staving Off Bankruptcy The New York Times. Retrieved on December 7, 2008. 
Tribune filing for bankruptcy|publisher=ABC News|date=2008-12-08|acessdate=2008-12-08 
Tribune Company to Voluntarily Restructure Debt Under Chapter 11, Tribune Company press release 
美国传媒大牌过寒冬 报业巨擘申请破产  这个人怎么搞垮论坛公司(图) 
Tribune Shareholders Back Zell’s Takeover  Tribune buyout, at $8.2 billion, closes in Chicago
[http://www.tribune.com/pressroom/releases/2007/12212007.html Tribune and Local TV to Form Broadcast Management Company
[http://www.tribune.com/pressroom/releases/2008/01312008.html Tribune to Acquire Real Estate from TMCT Partnership. 
Ed Wilson Named President of Tribune Broadcasting.
[http://www.tribune.com/pressroom/releases/2008/04282008.html.html Tribune Completes Acquisition of Real Estate from TMCT Partnership. 
Cablevision Completes Newsday Buy from Tribune.
How a Series of Mistakes Hurt Shares of United|url=|work=The New York Times|publisher=The New York Times Company|accessdate=2008-09-15 
Tribune files for bankruptcy Chicago Breaking News. Retrieved on December 8, 2008.
KSWB-TV has switched affiliations from the CW to Fox on August 1, 2008. 
CBS Kicks Off Radio Station Auction - New York Post (retrieved September 22, 2008)

External links编辑本段回目录


Tribune Company's official website
Media properties owned by the Tribune Company according to the Center for Public Integrity
Tribune media profile

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