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艾伦·杜蒙(Allen B. DuMont),Allen Balcom DuMont (also spelled Du Mont) (January 29, 1901 – November 14, 1965)
1901年1月29日,发明家、电视机之父Allen DuMont诞生

目录

简介编辑本段回目录

Allen Balcom DuMont (also spelled Du Mont) (January 29, 1901 – November 14, 1965) was an American scientist and inventor best known for improvements to the cathode ray tube in 1931 for use in television receivers. Seven years later he manufactured and sold the first commercially practical television set to the public. In June Of 1938, his Model 180 television receiver was the first all-electronic television set ever sold to the public, a few months prior to RCA's first set in April 1939. In 1946, DuMont founded the first television network to be licensed, the DuMont Television Network, initially by linking station WABD (named for DuMont) in New York City to station W3XWT, which later became WTTG, in Washington, D.C. (WTTG was named for Dr. Thomas T. Goldsmith, DuMont's Vice President of Research, and his best friend.)
Early life
DuMont was born in Brooklyn, New York City. At the age of 10, he was stricken with polio and was quarantined at his family's Eastern Parkway apartment for nearly a year. During his quarantine, his father brought home books and magazines for the young DuMont to read while bedridden. At this time, DuMont developed an interest in science, specifically wireless radio communication, and taught himself Morse code.
His father bought him a crystal radio receiver which he assembled, took apart, reassembled and rebuilt several times. He improved his set each time he rebuilt it and later built a transmitter, while his father obtained the landlord's permission to erect a 30-foot (9.1 m) high transceiving antenna on the roof.

While recuperating from polio, DuMont was advised to swim to regain the use of his legs. In 1914, the family moved to Montclair, New Jersey, where there was an indoor year-round pool available at the local YMCA. He graduated from Montclair High School in 1919, and went to Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York, where he was part of the Alpha Chapter of the Theta Xi Fraternity.
Radio operation
In 1915, DuMont became the youngest American to obtain a first class commercial radio operator's license at age 14. The following summer, he worked as a radio operator aboard a coastal steamer making runs from New York to Providence, Rhode Island. As the summers went by, he made his way to the Caribbean, South America and, after World War I, to Europe, where, during the summer of 1922, he was stuck in Copenhagen for months because of a dock workers strike.

After graduating from Rensselaer in 1924, DuMont worked at the Westinghouse Lamp Company in Bloomfield, New Jersey, in charge of radio tube production. While there, he increased production from 500 tubes per day to an astounding 50,000 tubes per day. Management decided to give him a $500 bonus, a small raise, and the "Westinghouse Award", an award devised to recognize his accomplishments. The "Westinghouse Award" was later presented as a scholarship award to high school seniors showing promise in a field of science (and continues to this day as the Intel Science Talent Search).
By 1928, DuMont was searching for new opportunities and was wooed by Dr. Lee De Forest, a radio pioneer who developed the audion tube, the original voice amplifier for radio reception. De Forest had a checkered career as an inventor and had several failed business ventures. DuMont was hired as vice president and production manager for radio tubes. Here he came in contact with a mechanical television, one that De Forest had purchased from C. Francis Jenkins, another radio pioneer. DuMont worked to improve television transmission and reception and went to De Forest asking for funds to build a long lasting cathode ray tube for television reception. De Forest denied DuMont's request as De Forest's investors were demanding better returns. Subsequently, DuMont resigned at the same time that De Forest sold his radio manufacturing business to David Sarnoff at RCA.

 Later projects
DuMont then started his own company, DuMont Laboratories, in the basement of his Cedar Grove, New Jersey home, building long-lasting cathode ray tubes. In 1931, he sold two tubes to two college science laboratories for $35 each.

In 1932, DuMont proposed a "ship finder" device to the United States Army Signal Corps at Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, that used radio wave distortions to locate objects on a cathode ray tube screen—he had essentially invented radar. The military asked him, however, not to take out a patent for developing what they wanted to maintain as a secret, and so he is not often mentioned among those responsible for radar. He did, however, go on to develop long-range precision radar to aid the Allies during WWII. As a consequence the French Government knighted him in 1952.
During the early years of World War II, DuMont received special government contracts to provide large 36" wide cathode ray tubes. These special tubes allowed scientists working on the Manhattan Project to study the action of accelerated electrons.

DuMont produced black and white televisions in the 1940s and 1950s that were generally regarded as offering highest quality and durability. Many of these premium sets included a built in AM/FM radio and record player.

The DuMont Television Network was not an unqualified success, being faced with the major problem of how to make a profit without the benefit of an already established radio network as a base. After ten years, DuMont shuttered the network and sold what remained of his television operations to John Kluge in 1956, which Kluge renamed Metromedia. DuMont's partner, Thomas T. Goldsmith, remained on Metromedia's board of directors from this time all the way until Kluge sold the stations to the Fox Television Stations Group.
DuMont sold his manufacturing operations in 1960. The television manufacturing division was sold to Emerson Radio. His research laboratory became part of Fairchild Camera and later developed semiconductor microchips. Robert Noyce, founder of Intel, originally worked for DuMont as an engineer. In the late 1950s, the Dumont laboratory, now owned by Fairchild, developed the original Sony Trinitron color picture tube, under a subcontract.
Awards and later life
DuMont was the first to provide funding for educational television broadcasting. He was the recipient of numerous honorary degrees and awards, among them the Cross of Knight awarded by the French Government, the Horatio Alger Award, the Westinghouse Award, and the DeForest Medal.

DuMont died in 1965 and is buried in Mount Hebron Cemetery in Montclair, New Jersey. The television center at Montclair State University bears his name.

电视的历史编辑本段回目录

电视的历史是十分复杂的。因为在同一个时期,我们会发现有不同的人在做着不同或者相同的研究。 大家在阅读的过程中会发现他们有许多的重叠之处。请记住,这种划分并不是事实,而只是理论上的划分。

 机械式电视

“尼普科夫扫描盘”
电视的原理是将图像变为电讯号,然后用电波传送出去。在图像转换成电讯号的过程中,需要借助扫描。所谓扫描,就是将图像分解为一个个不同亮度的光点,当这些光点投射到随光线强弱而同步放电的物质上时,图像就分解为强弱不等的电流。扫描分为机械扫描和电子扫描,最早发明扫描技术的,就是尼普科夫。

俄裔德国科学家保罗·高特列本·尼普可夫(Paul Gottlieb Nipkow)早在1884年就提出并申请了世界上第一个机械式电视系统的专利。这个专利中的尼普可夫圆盘据认为也是世界上第一个电视图象光栅(television image rasterizer)。但是,尼普可夫(Nipkow)本人从来也没有做出一个模型来证明他的设计。直到1907年,放大管技术的进步才证明他的这个系统的可行性。

1907年至1910年,波瑞斯·罗星(Boris Rosing)和他的学生维拉蒂米尔·斯福罗金(Vladimir Zworykin)验证了在发射机中用快速转动的镜面扫描装置和在接收机中使用阴极射线管(cathode ray tube)的电视系统。波瑞斯·罗星(Boris Rosing)在1917年的“十月革命”中离开了人们的视线。而斯福罗金(Zworykin)之后去了美国无线电公司(the Radio Coporation of America)工作。他在那里建立了纯粹的电子式电视系统。不过,他的这个系统最终被认为是侵犯了菲罗·泰勒·范恩斯沃斯(Philo Taylor Farnsworth)的专利。

“电视之父”——约翰·贝德尔(John Logie Baird)
1924年,贝德尔使用机械扫描的半机械式模拟电视系统播送了物体的轮廓。1925年播送了可辨认的脸部图像。

1926年1月26日上午9点,贝德尔向到场的看客们展示了自己的发明,引起了一定的社会轰动。

1929年,BBC同贝德尔签订协议,采用他的发明进行电视节目试验性播出。

1936年,BBC建立世界上最早的电视台,定时播送电视节目,电视广播诞生。

1937年,英国广播公司(BBC)终止了这种技术。因为在那时电子式电视系统更受到人们的青睐。

 电子式电视
尽管,尼普可夫、贝尔德等人的设计已经开创了人类历史上的一个新纪元。但机械扫描由于转动速度有限,扫描精度不高,不足以呈现清晰图像,被后来更为先进的电子扫描技术取代。

电子扫描
在贝德尔根据机械扫描原理从事电视研制时,美国的科学家则在进行电子扫描的探索。

   贝德尔发明的机械扫描电视,技术上比较简陋,每个画面的扫描线只有240条,图像比较模糊。后来通用的电视,一般都在500~600之间,而且每秒钟的扫描画面多
   达25~30个。这样的速度,机械扫描是根本达不到的,只有靠电子扫描才能解决。
率先研究电子扫描的是俄裔美国工程师兹沃尔金(Vladimir Kosma Zowrykin)。1923年,他发明了光电摄像管,1924年又发明了光电现象管。

   光电摄像管(iconoscope)和光电显像管(kinescope)这两个英语单词,也是由兹沃尔金首创的。Icon本意指宗教画像、偶像,演绎为一般的图像,而scope作为后缀有
   “显示器”的意思,由此构成的就是显示图像的光电摄像管。同样,kine的本意是运动,与scope连用构成了显示活动图像的显像管。
这两项发明构成了电子扫描的雏形。但是他的发明起初并不完善,甚至比当时较为先进的机械扫描还显落后。所以他所在的西屋公司对其发明并不感兴趣。

此时,美国无线公司及其负责人萨尔诺夫,却已预见到电子扫描的前景,对兹沃尔金的研究大为热心。

1928年,美国无线公司在纽约创建一座试验电视台。第二年,请兹沃尔金出任公司电子研究室主任。兹沃尔金由西屋改投无线公司门下,继续从事电视扫描技术的开发研究。

1939年,美国无线电子公司的子公司NBC使用电子扫描装置第一次播出电视节目,从此,现代电视正式问世。(《不列颠百科全书》将兹沃尔金誉为“现代电视之父”。)

除兹沃尔金之外,20世纪的二三十年代,还有一批科学家、发明家在致力与电子电视的探索和试验,其中值得一提的有法恩斯沃斯(Philo Taylor Farnsworth)和杜蒙(Allen B.Dumont)。

时至20世纪30年代,美国在电子电视的研制方面已走在世界前列。与此同时,和广播早期类似,许多业余爱好者开始自己组装电视机,收看试验性的电视节目,电视广播逐渐成型。

参考文献编辑本段回目录

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allen_B._DuMont
http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=10720

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