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互联网40年十大里程碑事件编辑本段回目录

美国知名IT杂志《PC World》网络版今天刊文称,2009年10月29日,是互联网诞生40周年的纪念日。在这40年当中,互联网经过了从无到有、从设备简陋到产业规模无比壮大的过程。回顾全球互联网产业的发展历程,至少有10大里程碑事件值得人们记住它们。《PC World》指出,对于一个人而言,40年应该算是不短的时间。然而对于互联网产业而言,40年只能算是弹指一挥间——互联网产业仍处于初期发展阶段。尽 管如此,与40年前相比,全球互联网产业当前的格局已经有了巨大改变。从某种程度上讲,互联网已经完全融入到全球公众的日常生活当中。

《PC World》认为,评选互联网40周年十大里程碑事件的标准有很多种,其中一种就是以技术发展为标准。如互联网最初阶段只能通过拨号上网,后来逐步发展成 为有线宽带和无线宽带。不仅如此,互联网传输的内容也逐步丰富,如从最初的文本数据到当前无所不包的多媒体内容。

以下就是《PC World》所评选出互联网过去40年发展历程的十大里程碑事件:

1、最初发送两个英文字母

时间:1969年10月29日

当 天美国加州大学洛杉矶分校(UCLA)教授莱纳德·克莱尼洛克(Leonard Kleinrock向斯坦福研究所(Stanford Research Institute)的一台计算机发送了一则信息,该信息由两个英文字母组成,即“lo”。此举宣告互联网产业正式诞生。

2、网景浏览器现身

时间:1994年10月13日

当天网景公司发布了其浏览器测试版代码,这就是后来著名的网景浏览器(Netscape Navigator)。在修复安全漏洞事宜上,网景通常是以发布升级版方式。而微软IE浏览器则通常采取发布漏洞补丁方式。

3、英特尔推出视频会议系统

时间:1997年11月6日

当天美国芯片巨头推出了一款视频会议系统产品,该产品可在互联网、ISDN(综合业务数字网)电话线及企业局域网中运行。

4、首款V.90调制解调器现身

时间:1998年2月18日

当天美国网络设备制造商3Com公司发布了首款V.90调制解调器,使当时用户互联网接入速度高达56 Kbps(每秒千字节)。

5、首款具备互联网接入功能的游戏机发售

时间:1999年9月期间

当月期间,一款名为Dreamcast的游戏机具备了互联网接入功能。在此之后,任天堂GameCube及索尼PS3等游戏机产品也先后配备该功能。

6、Metricom推出Ricochet无线互联网接入服务

时间:2000年6月28日

当天美国Metricom公司推出名为“Ricochet”的无线互联网接入服务,当时接入速度高达128 Kbps,服务范围在美国亚特兰大和圣地亚哥市。

7、Wi-Fi无线互联网接入服务现身

时间:2002年8月21日

当天美国移动运营商T-Mobile、惠普及咖啡店连锁店星巴克联合宣布,在星巴克美国1200家连锁店向用户提供Wi-Fi无线互联网接入服务。

8、雅虎推出Connected TV平台

时间:2009年1月初

在当月于美国拉斯维加斯市举行的消费者电子大展(CES)上,雅虎发布了Connected TV平台。利用该平台,用户可在连接互联网的高清电视机上运行各类小型网络应用程序。

9、美国网络音乐服务商同媒体公司和解

时间:2009年7月初

今年7月初,Pandora、Last.fm等美国网络音乐服务商同各大媒体公司达成了和解协议。协议规定,网络音乐服务商将向媒体公司支付相应版税,从而使美国网络音乐服务产业能够得以进一步发展。

10、微软发布新型网络电视服务

时间:2009年10月22日

作为微软下一代操作系统Windows 7发布活动的组成部分,该公司当天还宣布,将正式推出新型网络电视服务,使Windows用户能够直接访问互联网播放的电视剧和电影作品。

互联网发展历程中的重要里程碑编辑本段回目录

美联社8月31日

互联网发展和增长历程中的重要里程碑有:

1969 年:9月2日,在阿帕网(Arpanet)的首次测试中,加州大学洛杉矶分校的两台计算机交换无意义的数据,阿帕网是一个实验性的军用网络。两个地点之间 的首次连接发生于10月29日,这两处地方是加州大学洛杉矶分校和加州门洛帕克市的斯坦福研究院,可是,在单词“登录”(logon)的头两个字母出现之 后,网络就崩溃了。加州大学圣芭芭拉分校和犹他大学随后加入。

1970年:阿帕网接入首批东海岸节点,位于麻省剑桥的博尔特、贝拉尼克和纽曼。

1972年:Ray Tomlinson为网络带来电子邮件,选择@标志作为指明属于其他系统的电子邮件地址的方法。

1973年:阿帕网接入首批国际节点,位于英格兰和挪威。

1974年:Vint Cerf和Bob Kahn开发被称为TCP的通信技术,使得多个网络能够相互理解,建立一个真正的互联网。 后来,这个想法在1983年1月1日正式采用之前分拆为TCP/IP。

1983年:提出域名系统,一年之后,设立诸如".com"、".gov"和".edu"等后缀域名。

1988年:第一批互联网蠕虫病毒之一Morris令数千台计算机瘫痪。

1989年:量子计算机服务,即现在的美国在线,为麦金塔和苹果二型计算机首次推出美国在线服务,由此开始拓展直到2002年时为将近2千7百万的美国人接入上网。

1990年:Tim Berners-Lee在CERN(欧洲核研究组织)开发远程控制计算机的方法时发明万维网。

1993:Marc Andreessen和伊利诺斯大学的同事们开发出Mosaic,这是第一个把图片和文本组合在一个单独页面上的网络浏览器,它用易于使用的软件将网络开放给全世界。

1994年:Andreessen同Mosaic团队的其他人组建一家公司,开发第一个商用的网络浏览器,激发了希望发掘网络的商业潜力的微软公司及其他开发者的兴趣。两名移民事务律师第一次将垃圾邮件带到了世界,为他们的绿卡抽签服务做广告。

1995年:亚马逊公司开业,打开其虚拟的大门。

1996年:打击网络色情的美国法案获得通过。虽然该法案的关键条款后来因违背宪法而被废除,但是剩下的一项条款保护网络服务免于承担其用户行为所产生的责任,让信息以及错误信息可以生机勃勃。

1998 年:谷歌公司成立,公司是从一个始于斯坦福大学宿舍房间的项目发展而来。美国政府将域名政策的监管授权给互联网名称与数字地址分配机构即ICANN。司法 部及20个州起诉微软,控告这家无处不在的视窗操作系统的制造商滥用市场势力去阻挠来自网景及其他公司的竞争。

1999年:Napster普及了音乐文件共享,造就了永久地改变了唱片业的后来者。全世界的网民人数超过2亿5千万。

2000 年:1990年代的网络热潮随着科技公司的萎靡不振而泡沫破灭。在第一波广泛使用拒绝服务(denial-of-service)攻击当中,一次攻击令 Amazon.com和eBay等其他网站陷于瘫痪,此类攻击利用虚假的流量洪水般地冲击一个网站,虚假流量如此之大致使合法用户也不能访问该网站。

2002年:全世界的网民人数超过5亿。

2004年:Mark Zuckerberg在哈佛大学读大二期间开始运营Facebook。

2005年:视频共享网站YouTube开通。

2006年:全世界的网民人数超过10亿。

2007年:苹果公司发布iPhone,再令数百万人开始使用无线互联网接入。

2008年:全世界的网民人数超过15亿,中国的网民人数达2亿5千万,超过美国成为世界第一。网景的开发者不再为这种开创性的浏览器提供支持,尽管其分支产品火狐浏览器仍旧发展强劲。各大航空公司加强在航班上部署互联网服务。

2009年:西雅图邮讯报成为完全转移到网络的第一家大型日报。谷歌公司宣布将开发一款免费的计算机操作系统,为主要发生在网上的用户体验而设计。

20大里程碑编辑本段回目录

Happy 40th birthday, the internet: 20 milestones in the net's development
The Difference Engine, built to Charles Babbage's specifications at London's Science Museum in 1991
The Difference Engine, built to Charles Babbage's specifications at London's Science Museum in 1991 Photo: WIKIMEDIA COMMONS - GENI
The Google Wave logo
The Google Wave logo - the herald of cloud computing Photo: GOOGLE
Doom: A brief history of the FPS
Mosaic, the first popular browser
Mosaic, the first popular browser Photo: WIKIMEDIA COMMONS - NCSA
Gmail inbox
Gmail inbox
LOLcats - Mission Complete
LOLcats - Mission Complete Photo: ICANHASCHEEZBURGER.COM

The birthday is one of many that could have been picked – the name “internet” is only 35 years old, for instance, while the first email was sent 45 years ago.

But Arpanet, the defence computer network that grew accidentally into the all-encompassing, era-defining, economy-changing, amusing-pictures-of-cats-facilitating behemoth that is today’s internet, seems as good a place to start as any.

We know, incidentally, that we have overlooked something fairly major – the role of pornography in driving the internet’s growth. That isn’t out of prudery, it’s just that we couldn’t find a suitable “defining moment”.

That probably indicates that it’s just been there, all the time, since the beginning. Well, maybe not on the Difference Engine.

1. The Difference Engine, 1822
Charles Babbage, a splendidly eccentric 19th-century mathematician and inventor, is generally credited with designing the first programmable computer.

His Difference Engine was intended to carry out complicated equations mechanically, avoiding the need for error-prone human “computers”. He proposed the design in 1822, but despite significant funding from the British Government, it was not completed until the London Science Museum made one to his specifications in 1991.

His assistant, Lord Byron’s daughter Ada Lovelace, has been hailed as the first programmer. A gifted mathematician, she wrote the algorithms that would have been processed by the engine had it ever been made, and may have seen uses for the computer that Babbage never did.

2. Vannevar Bush describes the Memex, 1945
In his essay As We May Think, the American engineer Vannevar Bush laid down some of the principles that underpin the modern internet. It suggested a large desk containing microfilm documents, which could be navigated through via keystrokes, not unlike modern hypertext.

Bush thought of this as a library that mimicked the form of human thought – using keywords to follow a chain of thought from document to document, without reference to a central authority.

It has been argued that he predicted Wikipedia - "Wholly new forms of encyclopedias will appear, ready-made with a mesh of associative trails running through them, ready to be dropped into the memex and there amplified."

3. The first email, 1965


Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology seem to have been among the first to communicate via computer.

Only users on the same mainframe could type messages to each other – messages between computers were not developed for some years.

4. The word ‘hypertext’ is coined, 1965
Ted Nelson first used the word “hyper-text”, as seen in a contemporary student newspaper report on a lecture he gave. He envisaged a 'docuverse' in which all documents were linked to other documents and navigated via links.

Nothing would ever be deleted and copyright problems would disappear as copying would be replaced by referrals. His attempt to build the docuverse, called Xanadu, was an earlier version of the work done by Tim Berners-Lee at Cern.

5. The On-Line System, 1968
Is this the moment computing started to take its modern form? Douglas Engelbart's demonstration of computer communication included the first mouse, the first multiple “windows” like today’s operating systems, and the first practical use of hypertext.

It also allowed users in several places to edit the same document – an early forerunner of the modern wiki system.

As a bonus, viewers on a giant screen in Menlo Park, California, were able to see Engelbart’s work on a computer at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) in San Francisco – the first video conference.

6. First message sent over Arpanet, 1969
This is the event, 40 years ago, that we are somewhat arbitrarily calling the Birth of the Internet.

Arpanet, a linked network of computers created by the Advanced Research Projects Agency for the US Department of Defense, was one of the first networks to use “packet switching”, a system that allowed several machines to communicate over a single circuit, instead of having a dedicated link between two computers.

At 10:30pm on 29 October, this was demonstrated by sending a message from UCLA in Los Angeles to SRI in San Francisco. The message was meant to be “login”, but a system crash after two letters meant that it was, in fact, “lo”. The full five-letter message was successfully sent an hour or so later.

7. First email over Arpanet, 1971
There is some debate over this – it is suggested that in fact email was first sent within a few weeks of Arpanet’s development in 1969. However, the first message is widely credited to Ray Tomlinson.

Tomlinson’s was also the first message to use an @ symbol to distinguish between the name of the user and the name of the machine.

8. The name Internet, 1974
By this time Arpanet was not the only packet-switching system – it was also being used by the (British) Post Office, as well as commercial outfits like Telenet, Datapac and Transpac.

The first suggestion that they could all be brought together into a single, global network was made by Stanford University researchers Vinton Cerf, Yogen Dalal and Carl Sunshine, in a December 1974 paper, which coined the term “internet”.

It wasn’t until 1978 that the system, known in the UK as the International Packet Switched Service, came into service.

9. World Wide Web, 1989
The web is, in fact, not the internet. This may come as a surprise to many people. While the internet is the hardware, the computers and the phone lines that link them, the web is the software.

The web was developed by Tim Berners-Lee, a British scientist working at the Cern laboratories in Geneva. It allows the network of documents, navigated via a browser, that we all know today.

The hypertext that had been hinted at by Vannevar Bush, named by Ted Nelson and used primitively by Douglas Engelbart became, in the hands of Mr Berners-Lee (now Sir Tim), the familiar highlighted words that users can simply click on and navigate their way around the web with.

10. Mosaic, the first popular browser, 1993

Before Chrome, before Opera, before Firefox and Safari, before even the widely loathed Internet Explorer 6, before – if you can believe it – the venerable Netscape, there was Mosaic.

There had been earlier browsers – Berners-Lee’s own WorldWideWeb, for instance, or Erwise, or ViolaWWW – but Mosaic is the one credited with bringing the internet into the public sphere.

Mosaic 1.0 was released in April, with 2.0 following in December. However, its dominance was brief – the first open-source, free-to-use browser, Netscape Navigator, was released the following year, and it soon became the market leader.

Netscape itself died after Microsoft started targeting the web, releasing Internet Explorer v1.0 in 1995. It remains the dominant web browser, with 65 per cent of all usage, although that has dropped from a 2003 high of over 85 per cent.

11. DOOM, 1993

Not only one of the greatest and scariest games ever made, DOOM was arguably the internet’s first killer app. id Software’s bloody and brilliant (and hugely controversial) “first person shooter” was released via shareware over the internet – meaning that the first seven of the game’s 28 levels could be downloaded for free.

It is estimated that those seven levels were installed on more than 10 million computers within two years. As well as being the first must-have game that could be downloaded from the internet, it was a fantastic advert for what networked gaming could be.

It could be played by up to four people via a local area network or a modem, and introduced the term “deathmatch” into the language.

12. Electronic Telegraph, 1994

Without the slightest doubt, the single most important development in the history of the internet.

Ahem.

The Telegraph went online in November 1994, described as the Electronic Telegraph. At first it only carried the main stories from the day’s paper, but as it has developed it has gone on to carry much more – including picture galleries, online video, and, of course, comprehensive lists about the history of the internet.

13. Amazon and eBay, 1995 and 1996

Nowadays, we buy things over the internet all the time, spending anything from a few quid on the weekly groceries to thousands on a new car or computer. But while it wasn’t unheard of before the launch of Amazon.com in 1995, it was distinctly niche.

Amazon changed all that. Originally a bookshop, it has expanded to sell computer games, videos, music, clothes, food, toys, furniture and more. eBay, launched the following year, pioneered the peer-to-peer model of allowing web users to buy and sell from each other.

Amazon in particular paved the way for the dotcom boom of the next few years; its business model did not expect to show a profit for the first four to five years, relying instead on investor backing. It was not until 2001 that the company made money, but now turns over more than $19 billion (£11.5 billion) a year, with profits of $645 million (£390 million).

eBay’s first sale, incidentally, was of a broken laser pointer, for $14.83. The buyer explained: "I'm a collector of broken laser pointers."

14. Wireless Application Protocol, 1997
The first, clunky, slow, borderline useless system for making the internet available on mobile phones.

It might have taken half an hour to get cinema listings or football results via its creaking servers, but it paved the way for the iPhone and the Google Android. Now, with Wikipedia (item 17) available over our mobiles, we hardly need to actually know anything any more – we can just look it up.

Unless we’re on the Tube, of course. Then we're on our own.

15. Google launched, 1998

There were search engines before Google, which became necessary after the list of all available web servers became impossibly long: Gopher, Veronica, the World Wide Web Wanderer, WebCrawler, Magellan, Excite, Infoseek, Inktomi, Northern Light, AltaVista.

But Google, as well as being groundbreaking in how it searched and how it ranked the results, was the first to enter the English language as a verb. In the same way as one hoovers, rather than vacuums, or uses a biro instead of a ballpoint pen, one tends to Google, rather than “run a web search”.

16. DotCom bubble bursts, 2000
The exciting new possibilities of web businesses began what was called the “internet gold rush”. From around 1998, investors fell over each other to throw money at any business with a .com at the end.

Unfortunately, not all of those .com suffixes followed a Google, Amazon or eBay. Altogether too many followed a Boo or an eToys.

The bubble reached its peak in March 2000, and promptly burst. $5 trillion was wiped off the value of technology firms in the following 18 months.

17. Wikipedia launched, 2001

According to its Wikipedia page, “Wikipedia (WI-ki-PEE-dee-ə) is a free, web-based, collaborative, multilingual encyclopedia project supported by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation.

“Its name is a portmanteau of the words wiki (a technology for creating collaborative websites, from the Hawaiian word wiki, meaning "quick") and encyclopedia. Wikipedia's 13 million articles (three million in the English Wikipedia) have been written collaboratively by volunteers around the world, and almost all of its articles can be edited by anyone with access to the site.

“Launched in 2001 by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger, it is currently the largest and most popular general reference work on the Internet.”

It has been accused of bias (the thinking behind its unintentionally hilarious counterpart “Conservapedia”), dismissed for being too weighted towards pop culture, and criticised for inaccuracy. It is famously vulnerable to vandalism.

However, it was found by the journal Nature to “[come] close to Britannica in terms of the accuracy of its science entries”, and has transformed the way we find things out. Don’t know something? Look it up on Wikipedia. It might not be 100 per cent reliable, but it is at your fingertips.

18. LOLcats, 2005

We could have picked any one of a thousand memes here – All Your Base Are Belong To Us, if we were feeling nostalgic, or FAILblog.org if we wanted to see people fall off things. But we’ve picked LOLcats.

The power of the internet to distract from work is breathtaking, whether via Twitter, Facebook, or other (the author, for what it’s worth, frequently wastes time at twitter.com/tomchivers). For the last four years, one of its favourite sources for amusing round-robin emails is pictures of cats in strange situations, with misspelt captions in a san serif font. Naturally.

19. China’s number of internet users overtakes Americans, 2008
In December last year, stats suggested that the number of people who had logged on to the internet that month had risen above one billion for the first time, according to Comscore, a company that tracks internet usage.

Pretty amazing – and in fact, that number might be even greater, as the survey didn’t include the under-15s or people using public computers. Estimates rise as high as 1.6 billion now.

But equally significantly, the number of those users who were Chinese overtook the number who were American for the first time – 178 million to 163 million.

The news that internet addresses could be written in non-Latin alphabets also points to a future where English is not the automatic lingua franca of the web.

20. Cloud computing goes mainstream, 2009

The future of the internet and computing in general?

The idea of dispersed storage of files has been around for a while – Hotmail could store your documents way back in 2000 – but true cloud computing, which takes the actual processing away from the grey box on your desk and does it in a formless ‘cloud’ of web connections, is pretty new.

That said, a sort of mirror image of it has been going on for years. Seti@home and Folding@home both use the computing power of millions of home processors – in computers and game consoles, respectively – to power major computer systems; Seti in the search for extraterrestrial life, Folding in medical research.

But this is the other way around – there will be no home computers. Instead, huge servers scattered around the web will carry out all the processing functions. Your computer will essentially be a screen, a mouse and a keyboard, plugged into the web. Software will not be bought, but paid for with your attention in the form of advertising.

What happens after that, we don't know

参考文献编辑本段回目录

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/news/6455139/Happy--40th-birthday-the-internet-20-milestones-in-the-nets-development.html 


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